When Link takes damage, he becomes invincible for a short amount of time, allowing him to move through enemies. When the invincibility wears off, Link's body will be pushed aside if it's overlapping an enemy's body. This can also happen while Link and the enemy are in the air, meaning it is possible to get pushed onto ledges, railings, platforms and even walls.
The setup and timing for the Tornado Rod vary from one place to another, depending on different things, like the angle of the corner you're trying to do trick in, the height of the place you want to reach, etc. It is also good to note that, if you are using an Armos/Gargoyle statue, the angle at which it is jumping towards you does make a difference in the timing of the Tornado Rod and can also make the trick easier/harder to pull off. A good idea is to try to come up with a good setup that you can reproduce every time, using the fact that those enemies move one jump at a time, allowing you to lure them however you want.